Ernest Rutherford
Ernest Rutherford began his education in government schools. He attended college at the age of 16. After being awarded a university scholarship he went to the University of New England Wellington. Rutherford also coined the terms alpha particle and beta particle, which he used to denote the types of radiation emitted from thorium and uranium. Now on to his atomic model. He thought that there was a highly dense center, or nucleus, of the atom in which most of the mass was located. To test this he set up a fairly simple experiment. He set up an alpha particle emitter focused in one direction and he aimed that focal point at a sheet of gold foil. Around the gold foil he had a circular detection screen set up and as the alpha particles hit the nuclei of the atoms in the gold foil they deflected off and hit the detection screen at odd angles. However, most of the alpha particles hit the back of the detection screen, going straight through the foil.
This is how Rutherford set up his experiment.
This proved that most of the atom was actually made up of empty space. He hypothesized that the electrons were orbiting randomly around the nucleus which was comprised of protons and neutrons.
Rutherford's model of the atom.
Well that sums up the experiments and atomic theory of Ernest Rutherford! :)